Baddeley and Hitch (1974) tested the hypothesis that the short-term store also functioned as a working memory. They did this by asking participants to perform reasoning, comprehension or learning tasks at the same time as they were holding in short term memory between 0 and 8 digits for instant recall.
Baddeley and Hitch (1977) examined rugby union players who had played every match in the season and players who had missed some games due to injury. The players were asked to recall the names of the teams they had played against earlier in the season.
The working memory model is a theory for how short-term memory works, and an expansion of the views expressed in the MSM theory. Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 felt that STM was not just one store but a collection of different stores. These concepts lead them to form a model which consists of three slave systems; the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad.
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The working memory model by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) does not incorporate the motor memory system linking information processing to action or enactive representation to working memory although there is over emphasis cognitive processes.
Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed the Working Memory Model (WMM), which focuses specifically on the workings of short-term memory (STM). 15.13 Model Essay 13 Describe and evaluate the working memory model for AQA spec Paper 1 Essay includes concepts of The working memory model (WMM), Baddeley.
Building on this research, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative model of short-term memory which they called working memory. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argued that the picture of short-term memory (STM) provided by the Multi-Store Model is far too simple.
This essay covers the working memory model that was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974 in Smith the articulatory rehearsal system which has a restricted capacity of two seconds and rehearses data transparently and is linked to speech production and also the phonological store that temporarily holds speech based information (in Smith, 2007) Evidence for the presence of the phonological loop.
What did Baddeley and Hitch (1977) find? Rugby player study (asked rugby players to recall details of matches from a few weeks before). Found that the number of matches played decreased recall and increased interference. Time didn't affect recall.
Research evidence: There is research to support this theory such as the study from Baddeley and Hitch (1977) Intuitively correct: Most people can think of times when interference in both directions have occurred. This means that the theory makes sense and there are plenty of everyday examples of it occurring. Weaknesses of the theory.
Research which supports this model come from Baddeley and Hitch (1976). They conducted an experiment where participants were asked to perform two tasks at the same time (dual task paradigm) - a digit span task which required them to repeat a list of numbers, and a verbal reasoning task which required them to answer true or false to various questions (e.g., B is followed by A?).
The next section, therefore, moves away from sentence material and studies the retention and free recall of lists of unrelated words, The free recall technique has the additional advantage of allowing us to study the effects that the variables which appear to 66 Alan D. Baddeley and Graham Hitch have influenced the operation of working memory in the previous experiments have on the recency.
Proactive and Retroactive Interference By Saul McLeod, published 2018 Interference is an explanation for forgetting in long term memory, which states that forgetting occurs because memories interfere with and disrupt one another, in other words forgetting occurs because of interference from other memories (Baddeley, 1999).
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Baddeley and Hitch’s (1977) Rugby Study. From Baddeley (1966a). List A in this figure is like List 3 on the preceding slide, where words sound similar but mean different things. List C is like List 2 where words have similar meanings. List B is like List 1.Baddeley, 1975). (3) Baddeley and Hitch (1974) have shown unimpaired recency in free recall for subjects. a word's spoken duration and the number of syllables it contains. The results could therefore indicate either that memory span is limited in the number of items it can hold.The Working Memory Model, By Baddeley And Hitch. The working memory model, as introduced by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974, outlined two distinct components: the phonological loop (PL) which deals with auditory information, and the visuospatial sketchpad which is concerned with visuo-spatial data.